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水的静电极化:超固态(专述)

已有 1556 次阅读 2021-10-30 17:33 |个人分类:水之魂|系统分类:论文交流

Water electrification: Principles and applications

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S000186862030261X


超固态: 低密度、高弹、高熔点,低冰点和沸点,。。。


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Deep engineering of liquid water by charge and impurity injection, charged support, current flow, hydrophobic confinement, or applying a directional field has becoming increasingly important to the mankind toward overcoming energy and environment crisis. One can mediate the processes or temperatures of molecular evaporation for clean water harvesting, Hsingle bondO bond dissociation for H2 fuel generation, solidification for living-organism cryopreservation, structure stiffening for bioengineering, etc., with mechanisms being still puzzling. We show that the framework of “hydrogen bonding and electronic dynamics” has substantiated the progress in the fundamental issues and the aimed engineering. The segmental disparity of the coupled hydrogen bond (O:Hsingle bondO or HB with “:” being lone pair of oxygen) resolves their specific-heat curves and turns out a quasisolid phase (QS, bound at −15 and 4 °C). Electrification shows dual functionality that not only aligns, orders, polarizes water molecules but also stretches the O:Hsingle bondO bond. The O:Hsingle bondO segmental cooperative relaxation and polarization shift the QS boundary through Einstein's relation, ΔΘDx ∝ Δωx, resulting in a gel-like, viscoelastic, and stable supersolid phase with raised melting point Tm and lowered temperatures for vaporization TV and ice nucleation TN. The supersolidity and electro structure ordering provide additional forces to reinforce Armstrong's water bridge. QS dispersion and the secondary effect of electrification such as compression define the TN for Dufour's electro-freezing. The TV depression, surface stress disruption, and electrostatic attraction raise Asakawa's molecular evaporability. Composition of opposite, compatible fields eases the Hsingle bondO dissociation and soil wetting. Progress evidences not only the essentiality of the coupled O:Hsingle bondO bond theory but also the feasibility of engineering water and solutions by programmed electrification.




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