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前所未有的光波:科学家揭开了突破性的光量子探测

已有 830 次阅读 2024-4-21 19:40 |个人分类:新观察|系统分类:海外观察

前所未有的光波:科学家揭开了突破性的光量子探测

诸平

Quantum-States-Light-Concept-Art-777x518.webp.jpg

Fig. 1 Paderborn University researchers have developed a new method for analyzing optical quantum states with homodyne detection, significantly advancing quantum computing technology. (Artist’s concept). Credit: SciTechDaily.com

csm_UPB_20230412_PhoQs_Besim_Mazhiqi-10_9c0054c718.jpg

Fig. 2 Photo (Paderborn University, Besim Mazhiqi): Scientists at Paderborn University are opening up new possibilities in quantum information processing with a special experimental setup for measuring light particles.

据德国帕德伯恩大学(Paderborn University, Warburger Str. 100, Paderborn, Germany2024420日提供的消息,前所未有的光波:科学家揭开了突破性的光量子探测(Light Waves Like Never Before: Scientists Unveil Groundbreaking Optical Quantum Detection)。

帕德伯恩大学的研究人员使用了一种新方法来确定光学的特性,即基于光的量子态。他们第一次使用某些光子探测器设备,可以探测到所谓的零差探测(Homodyne Detection)的单个光粒子。

表征光量子态(optical quantum states)的能力使该方法成为量子信息处理的重要工具。例如,精确了解这些特征对于量子计算机的使用非常重要。相关研究结果于202415日已经在专业杂志《光学量子》(Optica Quantum) 网站发表——Timon Schapeler, Tim J. Bartley, Maximilian Protte, Jan Sperling. Low-noise balanced homodyne detection with superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Optica Quantum, 2024, 2(1): 1-6. DOI: doi:10.1364/OPTICAQ.502201. Published Online: January 5, 2024. Published 24 February 2024. https://doi.org/10.1364/OPTICAQ.502201

来自帕德伯恩大学物理系帕德伯恩介观量子光学工作组(Paderborn "Mesoscopic Quantum Optics" working group at the Department of Physics)的泰门·舍佩勒(Timon Schapeler)解释说:“零差探测是量子光学中经常使用的一种方法,用于研究光学量子态的波状性质。”他与马克西米利安·普罗特博士(Dr Maximilian Protte,)一起,用这种方法研究了所谓的光学量子态的连续变量。这涉及到光波的可变特性。这些可以是,例如,振幅或相位,即波的振荡行为,这对于光的目标操纵非常重要。

光子探测的突破(Breakthrough in Photon Detection

物理学家第一次使用超导纳米线单光子探测器进行测量,这是目前最快的光子计数设备。通过他们特殊的实验装置,两位科学家已经证明了具有超导单光子探测器的零差探测器对输入光子通量具有线性响应。换句话说,这意味着被测信号与输入信号成正比。

泰门·舍佩勒说:“原则上,超导单光子探测器(superconducting single-photon detectors)的集成在连续变量领域带来了许多优点,尤其是本征相稳定性(intrinsic phase stability)。这些系统还具有几乎100%的片上检测效率(on-chip detection efficiency),这意味着在检测过程中没有粒子丢失。我们的结果可以使单光子敏感探测器的高效零差探测器的发展成为可能。”

处理连续的光变量,为量子信息处理开辟了新的、令人兴奋的可能性,超越了量子计算机的常用计算单位即量子比特(qubits)

该研究得到了欧盟欧洲研究理事会{European Union (European Research Council简称ERC, QuESADILLA, 101042399)}、以及德国联邦教育和研究部{Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (13N14911, 13N16103)} 的资助。

上述介绍,仅供参考。欲了解更多信息,敬请注意浏览原文或者相关报道

Abstract

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been widely used to study the discrete nature of quantum states of light in the form of photon-counting experiments. We show that SNSPDs can also be used to study continuous variables of optical quantum states by performing homodyne detection at a bandwidth of 400 kHz. By measuring the interference of a continuous-wave field of a local oscillator with the field of the vacuum state using two SNSPDs, we show that the variance of the difference in count rates is linearly proportional to the photon flux of the local oscillator over almost five orders of magnitude. The resulting shot-noise clearance of (46.0 ± 1.1) dB is the highest reported clearance for a balanced optical homodyne detector, demonstrating their potential for measuring highly squeezed states in the continuous-wave regime. In addition, we measured a CMRR = 22.4 dB. From the joint click counting statistics, we also measure the phase-dependent quadrature of a weak coherent state to demonstrate our device’s functionality as a homodyne detector.



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