小柯机器人

科学家绘制出果蝇视觉系统的发育图谱
2020-11-08 22:29

美国纽约大学Claude Desplan、Nikolaos Konstantinides等研究人员合作绘制出果蝇视觉系统的发育图谱,并揭示神经元的多样性和趋同性。这一研究成果于2020年11月4日在线发表在国际学术期刊《自然》上。

通过对果蝇视神经叶转录组多样性的完整描述,研究人员报道了对大脑发育的见解。研究人员在成年期和五个蛹阶段获得了275,000个单细胞的转录组,并建立了机器学习框架,可在开发过程中的所有时间点将它们分配给近200种细胞类型。研究人员发现了两大类神经元群体,它们在发育过程中包裹了神经毡,但是在成年前就死亡了,还有两类神经元亚型,它们通过整个发育过程中的Wnt差异信号来分隔背侧和腹侧视觉回路。

此外,研究人员表明,相同类型但间隔数天产生的神经元转录组在产生后不久就会同步。在突触发生过程中,研究人员还解析了神经元亚型,尽管其形态和连接性差异很大,但它们在成年人中趋同为难以区分的转录组谱。这个数据集几乎完全说明了果蝇视神经叶的已知神经元多样性,并可成为理解不同物种间大脑发育的范例。

据悉,解密如何建立和维持神经元多样性需要在整个发育过程中对神经元基因表达有详细的了解。与哺乳动物的大脑相反,果蝇视神经叶及其连接体具有大量神经元多样性,并已经几乎完全被表征。但是,缺乏这种神经元多样性的分子表征,特别是在发育过程中。

附:英文原文

Title: Neuronal diversity and convergence in a visual system developmental atlas

Author: Mehmet Neset zel, Flix Simon, Shadi Jafari, Isabel Holguera, Yen-Chung Chen, Najate Benhra, Rana Naja El-Danaf, Katarina Kapuralin, Jennifer Amy Malin, Nikolaos Konstantinides, Claude Desplan

Issue&Volume: 2020-11-04

Abstract: Deciphering how neuronal diversity is established and maintained requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal gene expression throughout development. In contrast to mammalian brains1,2, the large neuronal diversity of the Drosophila optic lobe3 and its connectome4–6 are almost completely characterized. However, a molecular characterization of this neuronal diversity, particularly during development, has been lacking. Here we present insights into brain development through a nearly complete description of the transcriptomic diversity of the optic lobes of Drosophila. We acquired the transcriptome of 275,000 single cells at adult and at five pupal stages, and built a machine-learning framework to assign them to almost 200 cell types at all time points during development. We discovered two large neuronal populations that wrap neuropils during development but die just before adulthood, as well as neuronal subtypes that partition dorsal and ventral visual circuits by differential Wnt signalling throughout development. Moreover, we show that the transcriptomes of neurons that are of the same type but are produced days apart become synchronized shortly after their production. During synaptogenesis we also resolved neuronal subtypes that, although differing greatly in morphology and connectivity, converge to indistinguishable transcriptomic profiles in adults. Our datasets almost completely account for the known neuronal diversity of the Drosophila optic lobes, and serve as a paradigm to understand brain development across species. The neuronal diversity of the Drosophila optic lobe is described throughout pupal development by single-cell sequencing, leading to the discovery of transient extrinsic neurons and a dorsoventral asymmetry of the visual circuits.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2879-3

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2879-3

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

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