英国剑桥大学Menna R. Clatworthy、美国国立卫生研究院Dorian B. McGavern等研究人员合作发现，肠道训练的IgA浆细胞捍卫脑脊膜静脉窦。相关论文于2020年11月4日在线发表在《自然》杂志上。
Title: Gut-educated IgA plasma cells defend the meningeal venous sinuses
Author: Zachary Fitzpatrick, Gordon Frazer, Ashley Ferro, Simon Clare, Nicolas Bouladoux, John Ferdinand, Zewen Kelvin Tuong, Maria Luciana Negro-Demontel, Nitin Kumar, Ondrej Suchanek, Tamara Tajsic, Katherine Harcourt, Kirsten Scott, Rachel Bashford-Rogers, Adel Helmy, Daniel S. Reich, Yasmine Belkaid, Trevor D. Lawley, Dorian B. McGavern, Menna R. Clatworthy
Abstract: The central nervous system has historically been viewed as an immune-privileged site, but recent data have shown that the meninges—the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord—contain a diverse population of immune cells1. So far, studies have focused on macrophages and T cells, but have not included a detailed analysis of meningeal humoral immunity. Here we show that, during homeostasis, the mouse and human meninges contain IgA-secreting plasma cells. These cells are positioned adjacent to dural venous sinuses: regions of slow blood flow with fenestrations that can potentially permit blood-borne pathogens to access the brain2. Peri-sinus IgA plasma cells increased with age and following a breach of the intestinal barrier. Conversely, they were scarce in germ-free mice, but their presence was restored by gut re-colonization. B cell receptor sequencing confirmed that meningeal IgA+ cells originated in the intestine. Specific depletion of meningeal plasma cells or IgA deficiency resulted in reduced fungal entrapment in the peri-sinus region and increased spread into the brain following intravenous challenge, showing that meningeal IgA is essential for defending the central nervous system at this vulnerable venous barrier surface.