小柯机器人

多个小麦基因组揭示现代育种的全球变异
2020-11-27 13:55

加拿大萨斯喀彻温大学Curt A. McCartney、瑞士苏黎世大学Thomas Wicker、德国环境卫生研究中心Manuel Spannagl和加拿大农业和农业食品部Curt A. McCartney合作取得最新进展。多他们利用个小麦基因组研究揭示现代育种中的全球变异。这一研究成果发表在2020年11月15日出版的《自然》杂志上。

他们生成十个六倍体小麦的染色体假分子和五个支架组装体,以探索全球育种计划中小麦品系之间的基因组多样性。比较分析显示,广泛的结构重排,野生亲缘种的渗入以及复杂育种史导致的基因含量差异,旨在改善对多种环境的适应性、谷物产量和品质以及对胁迫的抵抗力。他们提供了概述这些基因组效用的实例,包括涉及抗病性和与昆虫抗性相关的Sm16的特性的详细的多基因组来源的、核苷酸结合的富、含亮氨酸的重复蛋白库。这些基因组组装将为功能基因的发现和育种奠定基础,以提供二代现代小麦品种。

据了解,基因组学的进展加快了几种重要农业作物的改良速度,但小麦的类似研究则更具挑战性。这主要是由于小麦基因组的大小和复杂性,以及缺乏多个小麦品系的基因组组装数据。

附:英文原文

Title: Multiple wheat genomes reveal global variation in modern breeding

Author: Sean Walkowiak, Liangliang Gao, Cecile Monat, Georg Haberer, Mulualem T. Kassa, Jemima Brinton, Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez, Markus C. Kolodziej, Emily Delorean, Dinushika Thambugala, Valentyna Klymiuk, Brook Byrns, Heidrun Gundlach, Venkat Bandi, Jorge Nunez Siri, Kirby Nilsen, Catharine Aquino, Axel Himmelbach, Dario Copetti, Tomohiro Ban, Luca Venturini, Michael Bevan, Bernardo Clavijo, Dal-Hoe Koo, Jennifer Ens, Krystalee Wiebe, Amidou NDiaye, Allen K. Fritz, Carl Gutwin, Anne Fiebig, Christine Fosker, Bin Xiao Fu, Gonzalo Garcia Accinelli, Keith A. Gardner, Nick Fradgley, Juan Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Gwyneth Halstead-Nussloch, Masaomi Hatakeyama, Chu Shin Koh, Jasline Deek, Alejandro C. Costamagna, Pierre Fobert, Darren Heavens, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Kanako Kawaura, Fuminori Kobayashi, Ksenia Krasileva, Tony Kuo, Neil McKenzie, Kazuki Murata, Yusuke Nabeka, Timothy Paape, Sudharsan Padmarasu, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Sateesh Kagale, Uwe Scholz, Jun Sese, Philomin Juliana, Ravi Singh, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, David Swarbreck, James Cockram, Hikmet Budak, Toshiaki Tameshige, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Jonathan Wright, Jianzhong Wu, Burkhard Steuernagel, Ian Small, Sylvie Cloutier, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnre

Issue&Volume: 2020-11-25

Abstract: Advances in genomics have expedited the improvement of several agriculturally important crops but similar efforts in wheat (Triticum spp.) have been more challenging. This is largely owing to the size and complexity of the wheat genome1, and the lack of genome-assembly data for multiple wheat lines2,3. Here we generated ten chromosome pseudomolecule and five scaffold assemblies of hexaploid wheat to explore the genomic diversity among wheat lines from global breeding programs. Comparative analysis revealed extensive structural rearrangements, introgressions from wild relatives and differences in gene content resulting from complex breeding histories aimed at improving adaptation to diverse environments, grain yield and quality, and resistance to stresses4,5. We provide examples outlining the utility of these genomes, including a detailed multi-genome-derived nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein repertoire involved in disease resistance and the characterization of Sm16, a gene associated with insect resistance. These genome assemblies will provide a basis for functional gene discovery and breeding to deliver the next generation of modern wheat cultivars. Comparison of multiple genome assemblies from wheat reveals extensive diversity that results from the complex breeding history of wheat and provides a basis for further potential improvements to this important food crop.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2961-x

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2961-x

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

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