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研究揭示纤维零食对无菌小鼠和人类的影响
2021-06-27 19:20

近日,美国圣路易斯华盛顿大学Jeffrey I. Gordon团队揭示纤维零食对无菌小鼠和人类的影响。该项研究成果于2021年6月23日在线发表在《自然》杂志上。

研究人员解决了如何设计含有不同纤维制剂的食物来改变与微生物组特定成分相关功能的问题。由于零食消费的显著增加与西方化有关,研究人员使用了来自不同可持续来源的植物纤维配制了零食原型,因此,当移植到无菌小鼠中时,这些植物纤维能够靶向肥胖个体肠道微生物组的不同特征。研究人员使用这些零食来补充肥胖或超重的成年人所消耗的受控饮食。他们微生物组中的纤维特异性变化与其血浆蛋白质组的变化有关,这表明生理状态发生了改变。

据悉,西方化带来的食物偏好改变对健康产生了有害影响,再加上无数导致粮食不安全的因素,正在推动人们努力寻找更有营养和负担得起的食物。摄入膳食纤维有助于预防心血管疾病、2型糖尿病和肥胖症。大量报告探讨了膳食纤维对肠道微生物群落的影响。然而,微生物组是复杂的、动态的,并且在其组成和功能方面表现出相当大的内部和人际变化。微生物组成分之间的大量潜在相互作用使得定义食品成分影响群落特性的机制具有挑战性。

附:英文原文

Title: Evaluating microbiome-directed fibre snacks in gnotobiotic mice and humans

Author: Omar Delannoy-Bruno, Chandani Desai, Arjun S. Raman, Robert Y. Chen, Matthew C. Hibberd, Jiye Cheng, Nathan Han, Juan J. Castillo, Garret Couture, Carlito B. Lebrilla, Ruteja A. Barve, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Semen A. Leyn, Dmitry A. Rodionov, Andrei L. Osterman, David K. Hayashi, Alexandra Meynier, Sophie Vinoy, Kyleigh Kirbach, Tara Wilmot, Andrew C. Heath, Samuel Klein, Michael J. Barratt, Jeffrey I. Gordon

Issue&Volume: 2021-06-23

Abstract: Changing food preferences brought about by westernization that have deleterious health effects1,2—combined with myriad forces that are contributing to increased food insecurity—are catalysing efforts to identify more nutritious and affordable foods3. Consumption of dietary fibre can help to prevent cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity4,5,6. A substantial number of reports have explored the effects of dietary fibre on the gut microbial community7,8,9. However, the microbiome is complex, dynamic and exhibits considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in its composition and functions. The large number of potential interactions between the components of the microbiome makes it challenging to define the mechanisms by which food ingredients affect community properties. Here we address the question of how foods containing different fibre preparations can be designed to alter functions associated with specific components of the microbiome. Because a marked increase in snack consumption is associated with westernization, we formulated snack prototypes using plant fibres from different sustainable sources that targeted distinct features of the gut microbiomes of individuals with obesity when transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. We used these snacks to supplement controlled diets that were consumed by adult individuals with obesity or who were overweight. Fibre-specific changes in their microbiomes were linked to changes in their plasma proteomes indicative of an altered physiological state.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03671-4

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03671-4

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

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