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研究揭示蓝色食品的环境性能
2021-09-19 23:17

美国美利坚大学Jessica A. Gephart等研究人员报道蓝色食品的环境性能。相关论文于2021年9月15日发表在《自然》杂志上。

研究人员提供了涵盖全球近四分之三产量物种组的温室气体、氮、磷、淡水和土地压力的标准化估计。研究人员发现,在所有蓝色食品中,养殖的双壳类和海藻产生的压力最小。捕捞渔业主要产生温室气体排放,小型中上层鱼类产生的排放低于所有喂养的水产养殖,但比目鱼和甲壳类产生的排放最高。在养殖的鳍鱼和甲壳类中,鲢鱼和鳙鱼的温室气体、氮和磷排放最低,但用水量最高,而养殖的鲑鱼和鳟鱼使用的土地和水最少。

最后,研究人员对干预方案进行了模拟,并发现提高饲料转化率可以减少所有饲料组的压力,增加鱼产量可以减少一半的土地和水的使用,优化渔具可以减少一些组的捕捞渔业排放超过一半。总的来说,这些分析确定了高性能的蓝色食品,强调了改善环境性能的机会,推进了数据贫乏的环境评估,并为可持续饮食提供了参考。

据介绍,鱼和其他水生食品(蓝色食品)为更可持续的饮食提供了机会。然而,由于蓝色食品在环境影响研究中很少被纳入,相对于生产的巨大多样性,综合比较是有限的。

附:英文原文

Title: Environmental performance of blue foods

Author: Gephart, Jessica A., Henriksson, Patrik J. G., Parker, Robert W. R., Shepon, Alon, Gorospe, Kelvin D., Bergman, Kristina, Eshel, Gidon, Golden, Christopher D., Halpern, Benjamin S., Hornborg, Sara, Jonell, Malin, Metian, Marc, Mifflin, Kathleen, Newton, Richard, Tyedmers, Peter, Zhang, Wenbo, Ziegler, Friederike, Troell, Max

Issue&Volume: 2021-09-15

Abstract: Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03889-2

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03889-2

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

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