小柯机器人

上下文推理是感觉运动技能学习的基础
2021-11-28 13:20

美国哥伦比亚大学 James B. Heald 研究小组研究发现,上下文推理是感觉运动技能学习的基础。相关论文于2021年11月24日在线发表于《自然》杂志上。

研究人员提出了一种运动技能理论模型,该理论认为运动记忆的创建、更新和表达都是由大脑上下文推理所调控。他们的理论表明,运动适应的产生既可以通过适当的学习来创造和更新记忆来实现,也可以通过学习改变现有记忆的表达方式来实现。这一发现使研究人员能够解释之前无法统一解释的运动技能的关键特征: 自动化发生、节省效应、顺行干扰、环境对学习效率的影响以及外显学习和内隐学习之间的区别。

更重要的是,他们的理论还能够预测新的现象-诱发运动功能恢复和情境依赖的单试学习,这一现象研究人员已经通过实验来证明。这些结果表明,与经典的单一情境机制相比较,上下文推理机制才是人类运动行为如何反应多样化经验的关键原理。

据了解,人类一生都在学习、储存和完善一系列的运动记忆。例如,通过经验,我们能够熟练地操纵大量具有不同动力学特性的物体。然而,对于人类的感觉运动经验如何被分割成单独的记忆单元,以及人类如何适应和使用这个不断增长的技能,其中的原理还不清楚。

附:英文原文

Title: Contextual inference underlies the learning of sensorimotor repertoires

Author: Heald, James B., Lengyel, Mt, Wolpert, Daniel M.

Issue&Volume: 2021-11-24

Abstract: Humans spend a lifetime learning, storing and refining a repertoire of motor memories. For example, through experience, we become proficient at manipulating a large range of objects with distinct dynamical properties. However, it is unknown what principle underlies how our continuous stream of sensorimotor experience is segmented into separate memories and how we adapt and use this growing repertoire. Here we develop a theory of motor learning based on the key principle that memory creation, updating and expression are all controlled by a single computation—contextual inference. Our theory reveals that adaptation can arise both by creating and updating memories (proper learning) and by changing how existing memories are differentially expressed (apparent learning). This insight enables us to account for key features of motor learning that had no unified explanation: spontaneous recovery1, savings2, anterograde interference3, how environmental consistency affects learning rate4,5 and the distinction between explicit and implicit learning6. Critically, our theory also predicts new phenomena—evoked recovery and context-dependent single-trial learning—which we confirm experimentally. These results suggest that contextual inference, rather than classical single-context mechanisms1,4,7,8,9, is the key principle underlying how a diverse set of experiences is reflected in our motor behaviour.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04129-3

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04129-3

Nature:《自然》,创刊于1869年。隶属于施普林格·自然出版集团,最新IF:43.07
官方网址:http://www.nature.com/
投稿链接:http://www.nature.com/authors/submit_manuscript.html


本期文章:《自然》:Online/在线发表

分享到:

0