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揭穿以前的误解:新研究表明土豆比你想象的更健康 精选

已有 5812 次阅读 2023-1-28 11:04 |个人分类:健康生活|系统分类:科普集锦

揭穿以前的误解:新研究表明土豆比你想象的更健康

诸平

Potatoes-in-a-Bowl-777x518.webp.jpg

Potatoes are a type of root vegetable native to South America. They are a staple food in many parts of the world and are highly nutritious, providing a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Potatoes are low in calories and contain no fat, making them a popular choice for weight loss and healthy eating. They are also a good source of complex carbohydrates, which provide a slow and sustained release of energy. However, the way in which potatoes are prepared can greatly affect their nutritional value.

据伊迪丝考恩大学(Edith Cowan University简称ECU2023123日报道,揭穿以前的误解:新研究表明土豆比你想象的更健康(Debunking Previous Misconceptions: New Study Indicates That Potatoes Are Healthier Than You Think

土豆是一种原产于南美洲的块根蔬菜。它们是世界许多地方的主食,营养丰富,是维生素、矿物质和纤维的良好来源。土豆热量低,不含脂肪,是减肥和健康饮食的热门选择。它们也是复合碳水化合物的良好来源,可以缓慢而持续地释放能量。然而,土豆的制备方式会极大地影响其营养价值。

虽然它们可能没有其他蔬菜的所有好处,但如果准备得当,土豆仍然是一个健康的选择。近年来,低碳水化合物或无碳水化合物饮食变得流行,导致土豆被其他蔬菜所取代。事实上,研究表明土豆可能对健康产生负面影响,包括增加患2型糖尿病的风险。

然而,新的伊迪丝考恩大学 (ECU)研究表明,虽然土豆可能不像其他一些蔬菜那样具有所有相同的好处(例如降低患2型糖尿病的风险),但与土豆相关的健康问题实际上可能是由于人们准备食物的方式所致,以及和他们与土豆一起吃的东西有关。相关研究结果于2022125日已经在《糖尿病护理》(Diabetes Care)杂志网站发表——Pratik PokharelCecilie KyrøAnja OlsenAnne TjønnelandKevin MurrayLauren C BlekkenhorstCatherine P BondonnoJonathan M HodgsonNicola P Bondonno. Vegetable, But Not Potato, Intake is Associated With a Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort. Diabetes Care, 5 December 2022. 2023 Feb 1; 46(2): 286-296. DOI: 10.2337/dc22-0974. https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article/46/2/286/147965/Vegetable-but-Not-Potato-Intake-Is-Associated-With

参与此项研究的来自丹麦癌症协会研究中心(Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark)、澳大利亚珀斯的伊迪丝考恩大学(Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia)、丹麦奥尔胡斯大学(Aarhus University, Denmark)、丹麦哥本哈根大学(University of Copenhagen, Denmark)、澳大利亚西澳大利亚大学(University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia)以及澳大利亚珀斯的皇家珀斯医院医学研究基金会(Royal Perth Hospital Medical Research Foundation, Perth, Australia)的研究人员。

超过54000人报告了他们在长期丹麦饮食、癌症和健康研究(Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health study)中的饮食摄入量。ECU营养与健康创新研究所(ECU’s Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute)的尼古拉·邦唐诺(Nicola Bondonno)博士最近对这项研究进行的分析发现,食用最多蔬菜的人患2型糖尿病的可能性比食用最少蔬菜的人低21%

博士生普拉蒂克·博卡雷尔(Pratik Pokharel)开展了分析工作,并表示虽然土豆对2型糖尿病没有同样的影响,但它们也没有任何负面影响。

在以前的研究中,土豆与糖尿病的发病率呈正相关,无论它们是如何烹饪制作的——但我们发现事实并非如此,普拉蒂克·博卡雷尔说。

在丹麦,人们食用以多种不同方式烹制的土豆;在我们的研究中,我们可以区分不同的制作方法。当我们将煮土豆与土豆泥、薯条或薯片分开时,煮土豆不再与更高的糖尿病风险相关:它们没有效果。普拉蒂克·博卡雷尔说,潜在的饮食模式是关键。“在我们的研究中,吃土豆最多的人也吃更多的黄油、红肉和软饮料——这些食物已知会增加患2型糖尿病的风险。当你考虑到这一点时,煮土豆不再与糖尿病有关。只有薯条和土豆泥,后者很可能是因为它通常是用黄油、奶油等制成的。

吃你的蔬菜(Eat your vegetables

普拉蒂克·博卡雷尔先生说,这项研究的结果表明,蔬菜可以在减少2型糖尿病方面发挥关键作用,因为食用大量绿叶蔬菜和如菠菜、生菜、西兰花和花椰菜等十字花科蔬菜的人患2型糖尿病的风险明显较低。

他说蔬菜和糖尿病之间的关系应该纳入公共饮食指南——吃土豆的好处也应该纳入。蔬菜降低糖尿病风险的发现对于公共卫生建议至关重要,我们不应该忽视它。

关于土豆,我们不能说它们对2型糖尿病有好处,但如果以健康的方式准备,它们也不错。在预防疾病方面,我们应该将土豆和其他蔬菜分开,但用土豆代替精制谷物(如白米和意大利面)可以改善您的饮食质量,因为土豆中含有纤维和其他营养素。

在厨房中付诸实践(Putting it into practice in the kitchen

普拉蒂克·博卡雷尔说,应该建议人们增加蔬菜摄入量——可以包括土豆,只要他们不吃一些不健康的额外食物,如黄油、奶油和油。他说,土豆含有纤维和营养素,对你有好处。人们谈论碳水化合物不好,但更多的是关于你摄入的碳水化合物的类型;与白米饭之类的东西相比,煮土豆是优质的碳水化合物。但是要小心你如何准备它们:不要一直吃薯条或土豆泥。只需将它们煮沸,然后像其他蔬菜或其他食物一样食用——你不需要一直和红肉一起吃。

本研究得到了丹麦哥本哈根的丹麦癌症协会(Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark)、澳大利亚珀斯伊迪丝考恩大学高等学位研究奖学金(Edith Cowan University Higher Degree by Research Scholarship, Perth, Australia)、澳大利亚国家卫生和医学研究委员会新兴领导者研究员补助金(National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Emerging Leadership Investigator Grant 1172987)、澳大利亚国家心脏基金会博士后研究奖学金(National Heart Foundation of Australia Postdoctoral Research Fellowship 102498)、皇家珀斯医院研究基金会劳里·贝林职业发展奖学金(Royal Perth Hospital Research Foundation Lawrie Beilin Career Advancement Fellowship CAF 127/2020)以及澳大利亚国家卫生和医学研究委员会高级研究奖学金(National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Senior Research Fellowship APP1116937)的资助或者支持。

上述介绍,仅供参考。欲了解更多信息,敬请注意浏览原文或者相关报道

Abstract

Objective: To examine the relationship between intake of vegetables/potatoes and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explore whether the relationship between vegetable intake and incident T2D is mediated by baseline BMI.

Research design and methods: Cross-sectional associations between exposure (baseline intake of total vegetables, vegetable subgroups, and potatoes) and baseline BMI were assessed by multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. Associations between exposure and incident T2D were examined by multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Mediation by BMI was quantified through exploration of natural direct and indirect effects.

Results: Among 54,793 participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, 7,695 cases of T2D were recorded during a median follow-up of 16.3 years. Participants in the highest total vegetable intake quintile (median 319 g/day) had a 0.35 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.46, -0.24) lower BMI and a 21% (95% CI 16, 26%) lower risk of incident T2D after multivariable adjustment compared with those in the lowest quintile (median 67 g/day). Baseline BMI mediated 21% of the association between vegetable intake and incident T2D. Participants in the highest compared with the lowest (median 256 vs. 52 g/day) potato intake quintile had a 9% (95% CI 2, 16%) higher risk of T2D after multivariable adjustment, with no association found after accounting for underlying dietary pattern. Of the vegetable subclasses, higher intake of green leafy and cruciferous vegetables was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of T2D.

Conclusions: The findings provide evidence that a higher vegetable, but not potato, intake might help mitigate T2D risk, partly by reducing BMI.



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